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Consumption of graphite electrode in steelmaking
Views: 139 Update date: Aug 01,2020

Petroleum coke and pitch coke are used as raw materials for ordinary artificial graphite electrodes, while needle coke is used as raw materials for high-power and ultra-high-power graphite electrodes. They have low ash content, good electrical conductivity, heat resistance and corrosion resistance. They do not melt at high temperature and are invariant. Graphite electrode is mainly used in electric arc steelmaking furnace, and can also be used to process various crucibles, graphite boats, dishes, hot pressing injection mold and heating body of vacuum electric furnace. The graphite electrode used in steelmaking accounts for 70% - 80% of the total amount of graphite electrode.

 

Electric furnace steelmaking is to introduce current to steelmaking furnace through graphite electrode, and the strong current will arc discharge through gas at the lower end of electrode, and the heat generated by arc is used for smelting. According to the capacity of the electric furnace, graphite electrodes with different diameters are used. In order to make the electrodes continuously used, the electrodes are connected by threaded joints. Because the cross-section of the joint is smaller than that of the electrode, the compressive strength of the joint material is higher and the resistivity is lower than that of the electrode body.

 

The consumption of graphite electrode accounts for about 10% of the cost of EAF steelmaking. The consumption of electrode in steelmaking includes normal consumption (such as arc light consumption, chemical consumption and oxidation consumption) and abnormal consumption.

 

(1) Arc consumption. Also known as evaporation consumption. This is due to the electric arc between the electrode and the charge, and the temperature is as high as 3000 . Therefore, there is continuous electrode consumption at the end of the electrode. This consumption accounts for about 40% of the normal consumption. It is independent of the electrode diameter. It is proportional to the square of the current passing through.

(2) Chemical consumption. It refers to that the electrode is consumed by the reaction of iron, calcium, manganese and other oxides in steel slag with iron in molten steel. It is related to scrap quality, steel grade and electrode diameter.

(3) Oxidation consumption. It refers to the consumption produced by the reaction between electrode and oxygen and water gas in steelmaking process. The oxidation consumption mainly occurred at the side of the electrode. The oxidation consumption and the carbon particle spalling on the electrode side account for 50% - 60% of the normal consumption. It is related to the furnace atmosphere, gas temperature, flow rate and other factors, and the gas flow rate has the greatest influence.

(4) Abnormal consumption. There are mechanical and artificial electrode fracture, joint tripping, serious oxidation in buckle and joint expansion, which will cause electrode cracking.




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